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He outlined his Third International Theory that year, publishing these ideas in The Green Book.

Gaddafi transformed Libya into a new socialist state called a Jamahiriya ("state of the masses") in 1977.

Ruling by decree, he ejected both the Italian population and Western military bases from Libya while strengthening ties to Arab nationalist governments—particularly Gamal Abdel Nasser's Egypt—and unsuccessfully advocating Pan-Arab political union.

An Islamic modernist, he introduced sharia as the basis for the legal system and promoted "Islamic socialism".

– 20 October 2011), commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary, politician, and political theorist.

He governed Libya as Revolutionary Chairman of the Libyan Arab Republic from 1969 to 1977, then as the "Brotherly Leader" of the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya from 1977 to 2011.

Nasser argued for Arab nationalism; the rejection of Western colonialism, neo-colonialism, and Zionism; and a transition from capitalism to socialism.

In October 1961, he led a demonstration protesting against Syria's secession from the United Arab Republic.

Born near Sirte to an impoverished Bedouin family, he became an Arab nationalist while at school in Sabha, later enrolling in the Royal Military Academy, Benghazi.

He officially adopted a symbolic role in governance but remained head of both the military and the Revolutionary Committees responsible for policing and suppressing dissent.

During the 1970s and 1980s, Libya's unsuccessful border conflicts with Egypt and Chad, support for foreign militants, and alleged responsibility for the Lockerbie bombing left it increasingly isolated on the international stage.

During this they broke windows in a local hotel that was accused of serving alcohol.

To punish Gaddafi, the authorities expelled him and his family from Sabha.

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